A food is defined as Pickled when it contains salt in specific concentrations, experiences fermentation in brine (pickle juice) or the vegetable's own juice, with the help of lactic acid bacteria, and is conserved for a while, with the preserving effect of the occurring lactic acid and salt.
Fermentation, can be simply defined as, high molecule elements, especially carbohydrates, being crushed into smaller molecule elements by microorganisms.
Fermentation is based on fragmentation of the glucose' cell cytoplasm without using O2 and gaining energy. There are 2 ways:
- Lactic acid fermentation: Fragmentation of glucose into lactic acid.
- Ethyl alcohol fermentation: Fragmentation of glucose into ethyl alcohol.
Fermentation, depending on whether the oxygen enters to the reaction or not, consists of 2 groups:
- Ant oxidative Fermentation: Lactic acid fermentation, ethyl alcohol fermentation, propionic acid fermentation and butyric acid fermentation.
- Oxidative Fermentation; Acidic acid fermentation, citric acid fermentation, oxalic acid fermentation and fumaric acid fermentation.
Pickling is a product of lactic acid fermentation, which the lactic acid bacteria in the natural micro flora existing on the fruits and vegetables create.
Upgrading the fruits and vegetables to more lasting food products is a method that has various advantages. First of all, as the fermentation process of the fruits and vegetables is finalized, their taste and structure become more pleasant.
Through the occurring lactic acid, the fruit or the vegetable lasts longer without being spoiled and keeps most of its nutrition, conserves its vitamins and minerals which helps digestion and stops the development of sickness causing microorganisms in the fresh fruits and vegetables.