Foods that are fermented with the help of lactic acid bacteria in brine containing certain concentrations of salt or in the juice of the vegetables themselves and preserved for a certain period of time with the protective effect of the resulting lactic acid and salt are defined as “pickles.”.
Fermentation (pickling) in its simplest form is the fermentation of high-molecular-weight substances, especially
Carbohydrates are broken down into smaller molecules by microorganisms.
In other words, its disintegration can be explained as pickling. Fermentation is based on the principle of breaking down glucose in the cell cytoplasm without using O2 and obtaining energy.
There are two types of fermentation:
Lactic acid fermentation: It is the breakdown of glucose into lactic acid.
Ethyl alcohol fermentation: It is the breakdown of glucose into ethyl alcohol.
Fermentation is divided into two groups, depending on whether oxygen enters the reaction or not:
Anoxidative fermentation : Lactic acid fermentation, ethyl alcohol fermentation, propionic acid fermentation, and butyric acid fermentation.
Oxidative fermentation: Acetic acid fermentation, citric acid fermentation, oxalic acid fermentation, and fumaric acid fermentation.
Pickles are a product of lactic acid fermentation. Lactic acid fermentation is carried out by lactic acid bacteria found in the natural microflora on the surface of vegetables and fruits.
Making vegetables and fruits durable through lactic acid fermentation is a practice with various advantages. First of all, vegetables and fruits gain a pleasant taste and texture after fermentation is completed. Thanks to the lactic acid formed, spoilage of the product is prevented, and significant losses in nutritional value are prevented.
It can be stored for a long time without any food; the vitamins and minerals it contains are preserved; substances that are difficult to digest become easily digestible; and the development of disease-causing microorganisms is also prevented.